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Ammonia hydrogen storage

In summary, the viability of an ammonia-based onboard storage system would depend largely on the following factors: Development of high power, small volume, lightweight and efficient integrated ammonia cracking/purification systems capable of supplying hydrogen at ~1400 slm and with ammonia pass-through of <0.1 ppm Ammonia is easily liquefied by compression at 1 MPa and 25°C, and has a high volumetric hydrogen density of 10.7 kg H2 /100L. The volumetric hydrogen density is 1.5 times of liquid hydrogen at 0.1MPa and -253°C. The vapor pressure of liquid ammonia is similar to propane. Moreover it has a high gravimetric hydrogen density of 17.8 mass%

Transporting liquid hydrogen directly, for example, requires storing the gas at -233C. It turns out that ammonia is also a very efficient means to store energy. Ammonia's energy density by volume is 1.7x that of liquid hydrogen, and it's more easily stored and transported as well The idea of using ammonia as a carrier for hydrogen delivery has gained traction in recent years because ammonia is much easier to liquify than hydrogen and is therefore much easier to store and transport. Northwestern's technological breakthrough overcomes several existing barriers to the production of clean hydrogen from ammonia One solution to this hurdle is to consider a hydrogen carrier, such as ammonia, for the transportation and storage of the fuel and crack it back to hydrogen at the user. The use of ammonia as a hydrogen carrier creates a new question. What is the better fuel - ammonia as a stand-alone fuel or hydrogen from cracked ammonia The use of ammonia and hydrogen as fuel or energy storage has been attracting a lot of traction in recent years. Hydrogen has great potential, however, issues associated with hydrogen storage and distribution are currently impeding factors for its implementation Hydrogen storage is a term used for any of several methods for storing hydrogen for later use. These methods encompass mechanical approaches such as high pressures and low temperatures, or chemical compounds that release H 2 upon demand. While large amounts of hydrogen is produced, it is mostly consumed at the site of production, notably for the synthesis of ammonia

  1. ated
  2. H2 Challenge launched to fund hydrogen & ammonia innovation. By Julian Atchison on July 30, 2021. Applications are now open for the H2 Challenge - an initiative set to identify the best hydrogen-related projects from across the globe for funding support. The Challenge is open for applications from
  3. A new report from Australia identifies ammonia as a key part of a hydrogen-based high-volume energy storage system. On November 20, Australia's Council of Learned Academies (ACOLA) and its Chief Scientist released The Role of Energy Storage in Australia's Future Energy Supply Mix
  4. Ammonia is considered to be a potential medium for hydrogen storage, facilitating CO 2 -free energy systems in the future. Its high volumetric hydrogen density, low storage pressure and stability for long-term storage are among the beneficial characteristics of ammonia for hydrogen storage
  5. - hydrogen storage and production (water electrolysis) - CO 2 capture Ammonia as a hydrogen carrier Ammonia cracking unit 200 nm3/h, 900 C, Ni catalyst. 11 Ammonia as a fuel for fuel cells A. Hagen, Use of alternative fuels in solid oxide fuel cells, 2007 • Alkaline fuel cell
  6. Ammonia is of interest as a hydrogen storage and transport medium because it enables liquid-phase hydrogen storage under mild conditions

Liquid Ammonia for Hydrogen Storage - NH3 Fuel Associatio

Paradoxically ammonia is a better carrier of hydrogen than hydrogen itself as its properties make transportation and storage straightforward. In some ways it makes more sense to transport hydrogen as ammonia, and then back to hydrogen Ammonia (NH 3) is an attractive hydrogen storage medium in several regards: it has a very high hydrogen storage density, 17.7% (wt) gravimetrically and 123 kg/m 3 volumetrically for liquid ammonia at 10 bar, and its synthesis, handling, and transportation is very mature The hydrogen and ammonia are then stored subsea in tanks. When there is no wind or power deficiency, the process is reversed, and ammonia and hydrogen fuel cells are used to generate electricity into the grid. The ammonia and hydrogen are used for temporary energy storage

Green ammonia for energy storage

New technique seamlessly converts ammonia to green hydroge

Ammonia borane, is a solid at room temperature composed of 19 weight percent hydrogen. Unfortunately, the bulk ammonia borane may release hydrogen too slowly for use as a hydrogen storage media for an automobile. However, the multidisciplinary PNNL group have been studying the impact of nanoscaling on the kinetics of hydrogen release Ammonia alleviates gaseous hydrogen's storage problems. Seasonal supplies of ammonia can easily be stored in mildly pressurized and widely distributed above-ground tanks. Energy efficiency is only a little worse than it is for gaseous hydrogen. If and when direct electrolytic production of ammonia is perfected, overall energy efficiency could. For bulk storage or transport, though, the energy penalty of going to ammonia is pretty small, he said, at around 10 percent of the total cost of an electricity-to-hydrogen-to-ammonia process Hydrogen-enriched compounds which are liquid at mild conditions, such as ammonia, methane and methanol, have recently gained attention as a distribution medium or for storage of hydrogen. Gaseous hydrogen storage requires high pressure vessels of up to 70 MPa while liquid storage needs cryogenic tanks maintained at -253°C

Hydrogen energy storage in ammonia is not something that would be instinctively obvious to most of us, but the folks in the energy industry are apparently ge.. The possibility of using ammonia as a hydrogen carrier is discussed. Compared to other hydrogen storage materials, ammonia has the advantages of a high hydrogen density, a well-developed technology for synthesis and distribution, and easy catalytic decomposition. Compared to hydrocarbons and alcohols, it has the advantage that there is no CO2 emission at the end user The company's plans envisage a 4 million tonnes per annum ammonia factory in Djibouti, whose output would be shipped elsewhere to be used to make the liquid hydrogen. Such a process has green credentials because ammonia is easier to store and transport than hydrogen, while the latter gas is a contender in some applications as an energy source The Opportunity Our Fertilizer team have a unique and exciting role they are currently recruiting for. They are seeking a talented, and highly motivated Analyst to lead our work on the fast-evolving green hydrogen and ammonia space. This role requires an engaging individual who can research and develop forecasts and narrative on a new market, one which will be critical in the global energy. Hydrogen and Ammonia Renewable Energy Storage Systems. Palys & Daoutidis. (2020). Comput. Chem. Eng., 136, 106875. Economics of hydrogen and ammonia energy storage Islanded renewable energy systems with 1000 kW annual average demand Combined optimal sizing and scheduling to minimize LCOE NREL data bases for weather/deman

Hydrogen and Ammonia Renewable Energy Storage Systems Palys & Daoutidis. (2020). Comput. Chem. Eng., 136, 106875. 5 Optimal economics: Levelized cost of energy Batteries alone are expensive (especially for significant long-term storage) Hydrogen provides improvement Hydrogen and ammonia is optimal Slide ANHYDROUS AMMONIA STORAGE TANK LOCATION AND DESIGN Stationary storage tanks for anhydrous ammonia are designed and built in accordance with OSHA (U.S. Department of Labor), 29 CFR 1910.111, Storage and Handling of Anhydrous Ammonia, ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, and CGA (Compressed Gas Association) G-2.1 - 2014 Hydrogen (H2) - metal hydrides 14 25 142 3.6 125 35.2 Ammonia (NH3) - pressurized tank 10 603 22.5 13.6 181 13.3 Ammonia (NH3) - metal amines 1 610 17.1 10.4 183 17.5 Tab. 1: A comparison of ammonia with other fuels. HHV designates the high heating value of the fuel. Adapted from Zamfirescu and Dincer (2008) The ammonia is stored in a tank and converted back into electricity when needed, either through traditional combustion methods or by 'cracking' it into nitrogen and hydrogen. In the latter method, the hydrogen can then be used in hydrogen fuel cells to power devices such as electric vehicles Ammonia has a higher energy density, at 12.7 MJ/L, than even liquid hydrogen, at 8.5 MJ/L. Liquid hydrogen has to be stored at cryogenic conditions of -253 °C, whereas ammonia can be stored at.

3. Hydrogen Storage for Medium and Heavy Duty Trucks (FY2019 Q3) - Completed preliminary analysis of 10-150 kg hydrogen storage for medium and 5 heavy-duty trucks. Date Completed % Complete 1 Complete initial analysis of at least three one-way and two-way hydrogen carriers relative to the 2020 targets of $2/kg hydrogen production an • H2 storage to absorb renewable variability and provide continuous feed to the NH3 plant. 2 - Fortescue (FMG) plans to build a green ammonia plant with input from a 250MW green hydrogen plant at Bell Bay, Tasmania. 3 - World's largest green ammonia plant in South Australia, a part of which is Storage of ammonia in metal ammine salts is discussed, and it is shown that this maintains the high volumetric hydrogen density while alleviating the problems of handling the ammonia. Some of the remaining challenges for research in ammonia as a hydrogen carrier are outlined The idea of using ammonia as a carrier for hydrogen delivery has gained traction in recent years because ammonia is much easier to liquify than hydrogen and is therefore much easier to store and. Abstract. Hydrogen and, more recently, ammonia have received worldwide attention as energy storage media. In this work we investigate the economics of using each of these chemicals as well as the two in combination for islanded renewable energy supply systems in 15 American cities representing different climate regions throughout the country

Ammonia: Fuel vs. Hydrogen Carrier Black & Veatc

Green Ammonia for Energy Storage - FutureBridg

Abstract: Ammonia is considered to be a potential medium for hydrogen storage, facilitating CO2-free energy systems in the future. Its high volumetric hydrogen density, low storage pressure and stability for long-term storage are among the beneficial characteristics of ammonia for hydrogen storage One of the more promising method is to use ammonia (NH3), a compound of hydrogen and nitrogen. As ammonia carries 3 hydrogen (H) atoms in a single ammonia atom, it has high concentration of hydrogen making the infrastructure for transport/storage relatively small. As it can be handled at room temperature, it is suited for long-distance transport The use of ammonia as a hydrogen carrier creates a new question. What is the better fuel - ammonia as a stand-alone fuel or hydrogen from cracked ammonia? At the moment, there is not a clear-cut answer to the question. Rather, the best fuel choice is a function of intended use, quantity, and technology maturity of the fuel user

Hydrogen storage - Wikipedi

Liquid ammonia (hydrogen storage density per volume: 108kg-H 2 /m 3) is capable of storing around 1.5 times more hydrogen than liquefied hydrogen under the same volume The hydrogen is then used to feed an ammonia synthesis process to produce ammonia. Yara is investigating producing renewable hydrogen to feed its ammonia production process, which will reduce emissions produced by the facility. The Yara Pilbara pilot plant will make 30,000 tons of green ammonia that would otherwise be made with fossil fuels To make ammonia, hydrogen and nitrogen are reacted with a catalyst at high temperature (about 500 °C) and high pressure (20 to 40 megapascals) via an industrial process developed by the German. Green Ammonia can replace fossil fuel storage at scale. What's the best way to store energy, from industry scale to electric vehicles, replacing the widespread use of fossil fuels? Pure hydrogen is an energy dense alternative, but the gas takes up a lot of space. Liquid ammonia doesn't, yet it contains the hydrogen and therefore the energy

Ammonia as ship’s fuel: C-Job’s future-proof way of

Chemical Hydrogen Storage: Control of H2 Release from Ammonia ST P2 Author: Tom Autrey Subject: PNNL H2 storage project presentation for the 2004 Hydrogen, Fuel Cells & Infrastructure Technologies Program Annual Review held in Philadelphia, PA May 24-27, 2004 2004. Created Date: 6/10/2004 12:05:17 A The storage analysis of ammonia and hydrogen showed that the ammonia storage system is 93.6% efficient when the ammonia synthesis energy is included in the calculation, which was calculated by dividing the chemical energy stored by the chemical and electrical energy added to the storage vessel. In comparison, hydrogen is only 76.9% efficient Hydrogen Peroxide, Hypochlorites, Perchlorates, Improper storage of laboratory chemicals can present a potential safety hazard for school science departments. One solution is to separate chemicals into their organic and inorganic families and then to further divide the chemicals into related and Ammonia, liquid or gas Chlorine, calcium. Whereas ammonia fertilizer sells for about $750 a ton, hydrogen for fuel cell vehicles can go for more than 10 times that amount. In the United States, fuel cell cars seem all but dead, vanquished. Storage of hydrogen in gas phase is the most expensive part of the process. This cost is due to the huge volume of storage required for 1 kg of hydrogen gas. The total cost of ammonia is moderate at 261 €/MWh NH3, by pipeline. Methane transported in pipeline costs 262 €/MWh CH4, and 268 €/MWh CH4 transported in a truck

The Motorship | ClassNK, NYK and JMU launch ammonia bunker

Ammonigy GmbH - ammonia-hydrogen solution

H2 Challenge launched to fund hydrogen & ammonia innovatio

Current ammonia storage and transport infrastructure 8 Ammonia: health and environmental considerations 10 1. The decarbonisation of ammonia production 12 1.1 Current ammonia production process - brown ammonia 12 1.2 Blue ammonia production - using blue hydrogen from steam methane reforming (SMR) with carbon capture and storage (CCS) 1 Abstract Ammonia is of interest as a hydrogen storage and transport medium because it enables liquid-phase hydrogen storage under mild conditions. Although ammonia can be used directly for energy applications, its use in conventional fuel cell electric vehicles necessitates decomposition into nitrogen and hydrogen, and the purification of the hydrogen to the composition required for commercial.

Ammonia solution, 7 N in methanol | NH3 | Sigma-Aldrich

Storage, whether via compressed gas, liquefaction or cryogenic liquids, may be via conventional above-ground means or below-ground in caverns or geologic storage, depending on the volume and application. It can also be converted to ammonia for storage. We have experience working with hydrogen compression systems of varying sizes and. Hydrogen-dense liquid ammonia stored at ambient temperature and pressure is an excellent source for hydrogen storage. This hydrogen is released from ammonia through electrolysis, which theoretically consumes 95% less energy than water electrolysis; 1.55 Wh g -1 H 2 is required for ammonia electrolysis and 33 Wh g -1 H 2 for water electrolysis While ammonia borane looks promising for hydrogen storage, given the volumetric and gravimetric density of hydrogen in the material, there are still technical challenges to be addressed. Foremost of these challenges are (1) enhancing the rates of hydrogen release and (2) the discovery of economical chemical processing pathways that will be used.

CO2 Tank - 120 Kl Liquid CO2 Vertical Tank Manufacturer

Hydrogen Storage Archives - Ammonia Energy Associatio

A chemical compound of hydrogen and nitrogen, ammonia (NH3) has several properties that make it an attractive alternative to pure hydrogen for certain applications, said speakers at the event Hydrogen and, more recently, ammonia have received worldwide attention as energy storage media. In this work we investigate the economics of using each of these chemicals as well as the two in combination for islanded renewable energy supply systems in 15 American cities representing different climate regions throughout the country The ammonia storage tank contains 100 gallons of liquid ammonia that can be used for fueling the tractor or fertilizing three acres of corn cropland. The tractor contains four 10-ft.-long composite tanks containing 80 pounds of hydrogen and one ammonia tank containing 50 gallons of ammonia. The ammonia tank contains half of the energy that's. @article{osti_1507121, title = {Efficient Ammonia Decomposition in a Catalytic Membrane Reactor To Enable Hydrogen Storage and Utilization}, author = {Zhang, Zhenyu and Liguori, Simona and Fuerst, Thomas F. and Way, J. Douglas and Wolden, Colin A.}, abstractNote = {Liquid ammonia is a high density (17.7 wt. %) hydrogen carrier with a well-established production and distribution infrastructure Ammonia can be used directly as a fuel or it can be cracked, and its hydrogen harvested to provide a stable and efficient means of hydrogen storage and transportation. Conventional ammonia production has a significant carbon footprint

Ammonia as Effective Hydrogen Storage: A Review on

  1. ating pollution. Their findings have been published in the journal Joule and will help the world transition to a hydrogen-fueled.
  2. can be overcome with hydrogen. Hydrogen can also be used for seasonal energy storage. Low-cost hydrogen is the precondition for putting these synergies into practice. • Electrolysers are scaling up quickly, from megawatt (MW)- to gigawatt (GW)-scale, as technology continues to evolve. Progress is gradual, with no radical breakthroughs expected
  3. g. Electron.
Hydrogen economy - Wikipedia

Ammonia for hydrogen storage; A review of catalytic

The hydrogen economy is an envisioned future in which hydrogen is used as a fuel for heat and hydrogen vehicles, for energy storage, and for long distance transport of energy. In order to phase out fossil fuels and limit global warming, hydrogen can be created from water using intermittent renewal sources such as wind and solar, and its combustion only releases water vapor to the atmosphere It was installed before February 8, 1973, and was approved, tested, and installed in accordance with either the provisions of the American National Standard for the Storage and Handling of Anhydrous Ammonia, K61.1, or the Fertilizer Institute Standards for the Storage and Handling of Agricultural Anhydrous Ammonia, M-1, (both of which are incorporated by reference as specified in § 1910.6) in.

Ammonia has been expected as a hydrogen energy carrier because it has a high H 2 storage capacity with 17.8 wt% and 10.7-12.1 kgH 2 /100 L. The volumetric hydrogen density is 1.5-2.5 times of liquid hydrogen, and it is easily liquefied under about 1 MPa at room temperature Ammonia is of interest as a hydrogen storage and transport medium because it enables liquid-phase hydrogen storage under mild conditions. Although ammonia can be used directly for energy applications, its use in conventional fuel cell electric vehicles necessitates decomposition into nitrogen and hydrogen, and the purification of the hydrogen. 2 CLIMATE CHANGE : SCIENCE AND SOLUTIONS HYDROGEN AND AMMONIA 1. Hydrogen and ammonia today 1.1 Background Hydrogen is the most abundant element in the universe and a well-established energy carrier. It has significant potential in a net zero economy as it can be used in transport, heat, power, and energy storage with no greenhous

Ammonia and Hydrogen Energy Centra

The transportation of hydrogen via anhydrous ammonia tanks and ultra-high pressure tube trailers is compared below. On the left is a non-regulated agricultural nurse tank. Pressurised to 265 psi, this contains 3,025 kg of ammonia, of which 17.6% (534 kg) is hydrogen. On the right is a 5,800 gallon tube trailer Storage solution. Scientia Professor Rose Amal, who is co-director of ARC Training Centre for Global Hydrogen Economy, says in addition to the advantages of being able to scale down the technology, the team's 'green' method of ammonia production could solve the problem of storage and transport of hydrogen energy

Large-scale storage of hydrogen - ScienceDirec

Ord Hydrogen Feasibility Study Public Knowledge Sharing Report | 7 4.2.2 Hydrogen and ammonia production In addition to the hydrogen production facility, the ammonia production plant would include: • Nitrogen generation plant • Ammonia synthesis plant and storage • Road transport of liquid ammonia in isotainer However, ammonia will not explode like gasoline, natural gas or hydrogen. In fact, it is difficult to get ammonia to burn, even though it makes an excellent fuel for cars and trucks. Ammonia vehicle fueling and storage takes place safely without any human access to the ammonia liquid or gas, just like the fueling process for natural gas vehicles Hydrogen Peroxide, Hypochlorites, Perchlorates, Improper storage of laboratory chemicals can present a potential safety hazard for school science departments. One solution is to separate chemicals into their organic and inorganic families and then to further divide the chemicals into related and Ammonia, liquid or gas Chlorine, calcium. Danielle Hansgen talks with Newark High School's Society of Science Scholars on October 5 2010. Ammonia Decomposition for Hydrogen Storage. PART 1Powerpoint. Energy storage efficiency is calculated for the solar thermochemical energy transfer system based on ammonia/hydrogen‐nitrogen. the calculation for this system involves generation of thermodynamic data not available in the literature by a method in which use is made of the available phase equilibrium measurements together with application of the criterion that the correct value of separation.

Geology and Rock Mechanics Consulting | Mannvit

Similar to hydrogen, ammonia is being considered for its potential to directly power combustion without any CO2 emissions. Siemens has built a Green Ammonia energy storage demonstration in the UK to evaluate an all-electric synthesis and energy storage demonstration system based on Green Ammonia Today, Air Products, ACWA Power, and NEOM announced a new $5B green hydrogen facility that will be sited in NEOM, Saudi Arabia. The project will use 4 GW of renewable power from solar, wind and storage to produce 650 tons of carbon-free hydrogen per day using Halidor Topsoe's ammonia technology, which allows it to be transported safely using existing technology, according to the company The storage analysis of ammonia and hydrogen showed that the ammonia storage system is 93.6% efficient when the ammonia synthesis energy is included in the calculation, which was calculated by dividing the chemical energy stored by the chemical and electrical energy added to the storage vessel. In comparison, hydrogen is only 76.9% efficient

The use of ammonia as chemical hydrogen storage compound that can be easily dissociated and used in the fuel cells and power plants is not new and has been ongoing for more than 40 years [1-58]. In the early 1970s when the concept of Hydrogen Energy Economy was widely debated, it was envisioned that ammonia (N Purdue University chemical engineers have invented a method of storing hydrogen using ammonia borane and releasing it safely without the need for high-pressure tanks, only by using the fuel cell's dissipated heat.. The U.S. Department of Energy has set a target of 5.5 weight percent hydrogen for hydrogen storage systems, and that means that the usable hydrogen should be at least 5.5% of the. Horisont Energi, based in Stavanger, Norway, is developing blue hydrogen, blue ammonia and carbon storage solutions. Blue ammonia is CO 2 -free ammonia produced by conventional ammonia production processes with CCS (CO 2 capture and storage) to isolate CO 2 into underground reservoirs EMEC hydrogen storage cylinders (Credit Colin Keldie) March 9 (Renewables Now) - Latin American electricity producer AES Gener, a majority-owned unit of The AES Corporation (NYSE:AES), will be studying the feasibility of building the first large green hydrogen-based ammonia plant in Chile Liquid Hydrogen (LH2), Methanol (MeOH), and Ammonia (NH3) are compared as hydrogen energy-storage media on the basis of reforming the MeOH to produce H2 and dissociating (cracking) the NH3 to release H2. The important factors in this storage concept are discussed. It is shown that, in terms of energy input for media manufacture from natural gas, hydrogen energy content of the medium, and.

storage and the ammonia plant. The ammonia plant is designed to be operated continuously at consistent rates, while the electrolysers will be operated intermittently to minimise electricity cost meaning that hydrogen storage is required 36 hydrogen content of 17.8% by mass, a volumetric energy density of 11.3 GJ/m3 when stored in liquid form at 37 1.1 MPa and 300 K, and is as such an efficient hydrogen carrier. 38 In order to avoid costly ammonia-to-hydrogen conversions and depending on the final energy use, direct am-39 monia combustion can be considered. Related research. Dive into the research topics of 'Ammonia for hydrogen storage: challenges and opportunities'. Together they form a unique fingerprint. Sort by Weight Alphabetically Engineering & Materials Science. Hydrogen storage 100%. Ammonia 83%. Hydrogen 44%. Decomposition 16%. Toxicity 13%. Alcohols 12%. Salts 10%. Hydrocarbons 9%. Liquids 7%. Metals 7%.

According to at least one aspect of the present invention, an ammonia borane containing hydrogen storage material is provided to be present with substantially reduced formation of borazine or diborane. In at least one embodiment, the hydrogen storage material includes at least one ammonia borane (NH 3 BH 3 ); and at least one amide of the formula M(NH 2 ) x , wherein M is a cationic element or. With green hydrogen as the bridge, green electricity can be transformed into a transportation fuel, or as feedstock in industrial processes, where currently no climate-neutral alternatives exist. Green hydrogen and derived fuels, such as green ammonia, will allow us to put wind power into the fuel tank of a container ship Title: Anhydrous Ammonia (NH3) Storage System Permit Alternate Title: Description: Anhydrous ammonia is a chemical compound used as a fertilizer. Its chemical formula is NH3, which means that it consists of one atom of nitrogen and three atoms of hydrogen per molecule Hydrogen storage breakthrough. June 24, 2008 Hydrogen offers many benefits as a renewable and sustainable fuel of the future as its combustion emits only water. The main problem to now is that it.

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Efficient storage and conversion of renewable energies is of critical importance to the sustainable growth of human society. With its distinguishing features of high hydrogen content, high energy density, facile storage/transportation, and zero-carbon emission, ammonia has been recently considered as a promising energy carrier for long-term and large-scale energy storage By weight, it has less than half the energy density of HFO and by volume just a third. It does present fewer storage issues than hydrogen as it can be stored at ambient temperature under a pressure of around 10bar or without pressure refrigerated to minus 34°C. Ammonia also has other undesirable properties The metal ammines lower the ammonia vapor pressure making them safe to handling and use. In figure 1, mass and volumetric hydrogen densities for storage of 10 kg hydrogen reversibly by 8 different methods is shown 1. It can be seen that the metal ammines has higher volumetric hydrogen densities than liquid ammonia at room temperature GEV said the scoping study shows that its compressed hydrogen supply chain is economically very competitive compared to shipping liquefied hydrogen or ammonia at distances of 2,000 nautical. The green hydrogen would be turned into liquid ammonia to supply ships converted to use ammonia as a bunker fuel and for export from Abu Dhabi Ports via specialised gas carriers. The scale of investment for such a project and a potential timescale for its development were not disclosed